Monday, December 12, 2016

Killila, Lutwyche

This blog's closing post for calendar 2011 concerned Brisbane's proposed Roman Catholic cathedral that was never completed and its prime mover, Archbishop James Duhig.

Today's post is the last one for a rather disrupted* 2016 and it again features a building connected to Archbishop Duhig.

But a comparison of the two buildings could hardly be more striking, for today we are looking at a humble dwelling that was Archbishop Duhig's boyhood home, Killila, situated in Lutwyche, a near-northern suburb of Brisbane.

Thirteen year-old James Duhig arrived in Brisbane in 1885 in the company of his mother Margaret, a widow, and two siblings. Even though three older siblings had preceded them to get established, the family was not able to purchase a house at that time and so lived in various rented accommodation at Paddington, Spring Hill and Petrie Terrace. When James started work as a clerk in the city, still not yet fourteen years old, his weekly wage helped the Duhig family pay a deposit on a relatively new cottage at Stoneleigh St Albion, now Lutwyche. When they moved to their new residence in early 1888, they named it Killila Cottage after their former home in County Limerick, Ireland. Even at that age it appears that James had an eye for real estate as he advised his brother by letter that the family had purchased the property for £250, but that they "could double our money at any time". 

The house must have provided young James with opportunities for self-reflection because it was during his years there, and while working to augment the family budget, that he began to think about the priesthood as a vocation. He went back to school in 1890 to prepare for five years of religious instruction in Rome, and finally returned to Australia in 1897 as a Catholic priest, destined to become one of the most significant and influential (and controversial) Queenslanders of the twentieth century.

And what of the house? Margaret Duhig lived there until she died in 1901, and the house remained in the family until 1937. The former Duhig residence still stands and is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register.  
(Photo: Shiftchange 2015)

An internet search indicates that the property sold in November 2011 - click here for details and some interior photos of the house.

Click here for a Google Map.


*A few months ago my closest friend passed away after suffering a brain tumour. I don't really have the words to adequately describe our relationship here, but we first met 50 years ago this month and in the intervening time we worked together at two different employers; we lived together in a couple of houses during our single days; he was best man at my wedding and I was MC at his; we travelled overseas together with our spouses; and I am the proud godparent of his only child. He is sadly missed by his wife and daughter and I share their pain at his passing. He was a good man - intelligent, witty and generous - and is a great loss to many.

Monday, November 7, 2016

Copyright 101

This blog is all about comparing the old with the new, and because it seeks to do this visually I trawl the internet for images that I can use to tell stories. 

I try to be careful with the provenance of images. I have no interest in passing off someone else’s work as my own and I do not monetise the blog with advertisements in order to profit from the work of others. I even block some links in the comments section if they are a blatant plug for a commercial entity. I do this so that places that might otherwise charge for the use of an image might allow that use without demanding a fee. It is usually sufficient.

Most of the older images that I use are out of copyright and just need a simple attribution. Some copyrighted works need specific permission for any type of publication and that is normally granted immediately for this blog given that it exists purely as a historical reference for interested readers. Whenever I have contacted universities, museums etc - even television stations - permission has been granted for me to use relevant material with appropriate attribution. I took the view that newspapers already had their information readily accessed electronically, so they would not mind it being reproduced with the proper attribution.

Imagine my surprise at receiving a terse email from one of Rupert Murdoch’s minions instructing me to remove any and all News Corp copyrighted images within 48 hours. Or what? It didn’t say, but Rupert has far deeper pockets than your humble blogger, so I am in no hurry to find out.

Technically they are within their rights to refuse to allow this blog to republish their copyrighted images without express permission, no matter what attribution might be used. I did reply, asking if there could be any exception for a non-commercial blog and was told that News Corp charges a fee for use of images and that it does not allow them to be posted on blogs. The reply went on to say that they would normally demand a fee for this misuse but would not in this case if the images were removed within 48 hours.

So I have removed the images. There weren’t a lot. This occasional message now appears throughout the blog:

I am disappointed in this action. It would seem to me that a few random images (acknowledged to be copyrighted to News Corp) on a little-known blog that might appeal to the occasional history nerd would hardly cause any loss or damage to News Corp. What is the difference between the posting of an attributed image on a blog and the sharing of the same image on Facebook?

But sending out gruff emails has given someone an important job in a big organisation, so let’s move on.

PS - I have chosen not to provide links to the now-missing News Corp images.

Monday, October 31, 2016

Ellersie, New Farm & Thomas Glassey, labour pioneer

We take an awful lot for granted today.

Consider the following work history of unionist and politician Thomas Glassey, born in Armagh, Ireland in 1844:

First employed in an Irish linen mill at the age of six. That's not a typo - age 6!
Became a letter carrier at the pay rate of one shilling per week. That's 10 cents in today's coinage, although the real value equivalent would be in the order of $6.
Factory worker - four pence per day.
Moved to a new town; employed as factory worker at the rate of five pence per 12-hour day.
At age 10 left home, employed in a new job at eight pence per day
Around age 13 moved from Ireland to Scotland and became a coal miner at eighteen pence per day.

It comes as no surprise that from those humble and physically tough origins Thomas Glassey became involved in the trade union movement in Scotland and later in Queensland.  He was blacklisted because of his union activism in Scotland, moving to Bedlington in England in 1867 where he was active in politics and charitable works, becoming a member of the local Board of Health in 1881-83.

He emigrated to Australia in 1884, initially joining the post office then becoming an auctioneer, but coal mining was not far from his thoughts. He was approached to convene a meeting in 1886 that was the inauguration of the Ipswich Coal Miners' Mutual Protective Association of which he became secretary.
(Photo: National Library of Australia; nla.pic-an23431938)

In 1888 Glassey was elected to parliament in the seat of Bundamba, representing the interests of the labour movement, and he is seen as being Australia's first Labor MP. He was parliamentary leader of the Labor Party in Queensland 1894-99. He had an unsuccessful attempt to unseat Sir Thomas McIlwraith in North Brisbane in 1893, and was then in a political merry-go-round for a few years until emerging as a Queensland Senator in the federal parliament in 1901. Seen as a zealot by some of his contemporaries, Thomas Glassey was a progressive politician for the times and quite popular with electors. Here are some of the policies he pursued in state and federal politics:
  • Eight Hour Day
  • Married Women's Property Bill
  • Cessation of Kanaka labour; although he did support a White Australia policy
  • Federation
Glassey's wife died in 1899 and he lost his senate seat in 1903. He was unsuccessful at several further attempts at politics and he accepted a role as an immigration officer in England for Queensland in 1911-12.

In 1909 he purchased a house named Ellersie in New Farm where he lived until he died in 1936, the property remaining in his family until the 1960s. The house is still standing next to New Farm State School and can be seen in the following photo. Ellersie, listed on the BCC Heritage Register, was built around 1888 in the Brisbane boom years and was possibly designed by Andrea Stombuco.

In the final phase of his life, Glassey became somewhat estranged from the Labor Party as a result of becoming a director of New Aberdare Colliery Ltd from 1913, then joining the formation of the Queensland Nationalist Party in 1917.

However in 1938 a monument to Glassey's service to the coal mining industry was erected in the heart of Ipswich mining territory on Limestone Hill.

Click here for a Google Map.


Monday, September 5, 2016

Evesham, Hamilton

It’s always a welcome occurrence when people provide information for the blog. Most of the information in this post was sent to me by reader Lyndon who has researched the building we are examining today. The building is named Evesham and it overlooks the Brisbane River in the classy suburb of Hamilton. My thanks to Lyndon for allowing me to publish some of the information he has gathered about Evesham. Here is a view of it taken just after the building’s completion.

And here is a more recent image.
 (Photo: Caco Photography)

Evesham was designed by leading Brisbane architect Mervyn Rylance for Mrs Evelyn Thomason who moved into the building in June 1937. Mrs Thomason was a well-known Brisbane socialite and the Brisbane newspaper Truth carried an extensive article on the Spanish Mission styled structure on 11 July of that year. Although it appears as one residence, she commissioned Rylance to design the building as four large flats, each with unobstructed views of the river. I assume that the intent was to live in one and derive an income from the others.


(Photos: L-Truth 1937; R-Caco Photography)

Evelyn Thomason (nee Horsman) was born in Cooktown in March 1880 and grew up in Rockhampton where her father was a publican. The family moved to Sydney in 1904, but Evelyn moved back to Brisbane in 1906 to marry HW Thomason, a partner in a thriving chemist practice around the Woolloongabba-South Brisbane precinct. A building in the Woolloongabba Fiveways still has the Thomason name at the top as has another at Stones Corner. In 1907 they moved to a house on the Rathdonnell estate at Auchenflower. The estate became available for purchase in 1911 and it was bought by Mrs Thomason who moved into Rathdonnell House and subdivided the land, selling off the house that she had originally occupied.

During the thirty years that the Thomasons lived at Rathdonnell it was the scene of many parties, social gatherings, sporting events and fund raising activities. Music, in particular, was at the centre of much of the entertaining that occurred - Evelyn was an accomplished violin player and all the family played an instrument. The family was obviously very well-off as there were regular holidays to Tamborine and Southport and southern cities as well as overseas trips. HW Thomason was almost twenty years older than his wife Evelyn and was aged 76 when the family moved to Evesham. Newspaper reports indicated that he had still been working as a chemist on his 74th birthday, but I do not know when (or if) he retired or when he died.
(Photo: pinterest)
This social life did not change when the family moved to Hamilton. Lyndon reports that the German opera singer Madame Lotte Lehmann was a temporary resident at Evesham while she was performing a season at Brisbane's City Hall. It was Madame Lehmann who "discovered" the von Trapp family singing in a garden in Austria and encouraged them to enter a musical contest which they won, subsequently the genesis of the famous film "The Sound of Music". Here is a photograph from Brisbane's Telegraph newspaper showing Madame Lehmann at the piano at Evesham entertaining a kookaburra. Kookaburras must have fascinated her as there is video evidence of her singing a duet with one.

Evelyn Thomason lived at Evesham until she died in 1970, but family members continued to live there for a time after that. The building, then under one title, was eventually sold to the Kirby family in 1980.

Evesham's four apartments have since been strata titled, and my correspondent Lyndon tells me that the body corporate has been diligent in preserving the character of the building which will be 80 years old next year.

Here is a final look at Evesham nestled among neighbours overlooking the river.
 (Photo: Caco Photography)

Click here for a Google Map.


Monday, July 25, 2016

The irregular posting to the blog is the result of a recent bereavement. Things are still a bit tough but I hope normal transmission will be achieved shortly.

Monday, May 30, 2016

Moana, New Farm

Theodore Oscar Unmack was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1835 and came to Australia in 1853. After several years in Victoria he moved to Queensland in 1860 where he achieved success in business and politics.

For a time Unmack was engaged in the wholesale produce business with another German immigrant, Johann Heussler, and they operated out of Tara House (later to become the home of the Irish Club) in Elizabeth St. It appears that Unmack gave a regular market report that was published in the press for the benefiit of his fellow citizens. From The Queenslander:
WHOLESALE. (The Queenslander, 21 August 1875)
There is little change in the market since
last week; business has, if anything, improved.
The holidays have, however, tended to keep it
quiet. Flour steady; maize brisker; demand
good ; bran in average request; potatoes very
dull of sale, market being crowded with sellers,
and consumption moderate; hay still over
stocked and quiet; butter well supplied, and
in moderate demand. Bacon, 9d per lb ; bran,
£9 per ton j butter, 9d per lb; flour, best
Adelaide, £24 to £26 per ton; flour, Tas
mania, £22 to £24 per ton; hay, lucerne, £9
to £10 per ton ; hay, oaten, £8 to £9 per ton;
maize, 5s 8d to 5s 6d per bushel; oats, 4s 6d
to 5s per bushel; potatoes, nominal; onions,
none ; pollard, £9 10* per ton; soap, £30 per
top ; mould candles, 51/2d to 6d per lb

Unmack, a prominent Freemason, was the German Consul for two years as well as president of the Chamber of Commerce. In 1888 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly as the member for Toowong and subsequently acted as the Postmaster-General and Secretary for Railways. Here is a photograph from 1889.
 (Photo: SLQ 69368)

In 1885 Unmack purchased land at Moray St, New Farm where he built the subject of today's post - the imposing house overlooking the Brisbane River that he named Moana, a Hawaiian word meaning water or sea, but probably "borrowed" from the name of a hotel. Here are photographs of it, front and back, from 1932. The view from the rear also includes the maids' quarters, testament to the status of the owner of the house.
(Photo: SLQ 19407)

(Photo: SLQ 19406)

Architects Banks and Carandini designed Moana and it is believed to be the last surviving example of their domestic architecture. The Unmack family lived there until the early 1920s when it was converted to flats. Theodore Unmack died in 1919.

Moana appears on the Brisbane City Council heritage register. Although it has been modified in the conversion to flats and then the conversion back to a single dwelling in 1986, much of the original character of the house remains. The latest sale of the property I could find was in October 2010 for a tad over $3 million. This is what it looked like at the time.

And here is today's quick look over the fence at Moana.
  (Photo: © 2016 the foto fanatic)  

Click here for a Google Map.


Monday, May 2, 2016

JAM O'Keeffe, builder

We have seen evidence of the work of well-known architect Andrea Stombuco in these pages before.

Today we will examine a builder who converted many of Stombuco's dreams into reality. He was an Irish immigrant named John Arthur Manus O'Keeffe.

O'Keeffe came to Australia in 1857 and initially settled in Toowoomba where he worked as a builder, possibly on the railways. Next we find him, a decade later, mining the gold fields of Gympie. This activity allowed O'Keeffe to amass a sizeable land holding, mainly heavily wooded, from where he would be able to source timber for the construction work he was about to undertake.

By the end of the 1870s O'Keeffe had moved with his wife and family to Spring Hill in Brisbane in order to embark on the career for which he is best remembered. In the Brisbane boom-times of the 1880s his company would construct many of Brisbane's most notable buildings.

The firm of Messrs O'Keeffe & Co operated mainly in the private sector, eschewing the government construction work that was also plentiful at this time. Among his non-Stombuco accomplishments were the fabulous Dura at Hendra, designed by HGO Thomas, built by O'Keeffe in 1888-89 and known now as Glengariff; as well as Collins Place built in 1889-90 at South Brisbane for hotelier Michael Foley (pictured below, Glengariff top & Collins Place bottom).
(Photo: SLQ 145445)


Around this time he created Stombuco's impressive Her Majesty's Opera House in Queen St, shown in the drawing below. Regrettably this ornate building was demolished during the Joh Bjelke-Petersen era of destruction.
(Photo: SLQ 16875)

Also of note were the terrace houses situated on Petrie Terrace that came to be home for the O'Keeffe family and now are a Brisbane landmark close to the Normanby Fiveways. They are pictured here in 1977, prior to a restoration.
   (Photo: SLQ 73812)

Stombuco was also an accomplished ecclesiastical architect who had already designed several churches in Victoria, and in Brisbane he designed these churches that were built by O'Keeffe - firstly St Patrick's Catholic Church at Fortitude Valley.
(Photo: SLQ 7908)
And also St Andrew's Anglican Church at South Brisbane.
(Photo: SLQ 189987)

Then there was the building meant to be Stombuco's own residence (Sans Souci, now Palma Rosa) where O'Keeffe was the principal contractor, the others being Andrew Petrie (stonework) and John Watson (plumbing). Unfortunately for Stombuco he wasn't able to reside there - at least not for long, as the building boom in Brisbane was soon to end. 
 (Photo: SLQ 128011)

The boom era of the 1880s preceded the bust of the 1890s. A financial melt-down together with the natural disasters of the huge floods of 1890 and 1893 caused many businesses to fail. Stambuco left Brisbane for Perth in 1891, never to return.

O'Keeffe's business was forced into liquidation but he managed to repay most of his debts before his death in 1913 at the age of 76.

Note: Historian Rod Fisher completed what he has called his "farewell to Brisbane arms" in 2011 prior to moving to Brazil - a thoroughly researched opus called "The Best of Colonial Brisbane", and the information presented here is drawn mainly from that source.


Monday, April 25, 2016


Monday, April 18, 2016

Frogs Hollow, Brisbane CBD

If you walk down Edward St towards the Brisbane River you will come to a building that we have looked at previously - the Port Office Hotel, named after the old Port Office building (now the Stamford Plaza Hotel) situated on the other side of the street near the northern entrance to the Botanical Gardens.

On the Edward St wall of the Port Office Hotel is the sculpture named "Frogs Hollow" shown in the photograph below.
(Photo: © 2016 the foto fanatic)

The piece was created by Christopher Trotter as part of his "Nature" series, several of which are dotted around the CBD, and it is a physical representation of the name that was given to this area in days gone by. If you look at the work you can pick out the frogs, toadstools and reeds that used to be present in this low-lying part of Brisbane.

Frogs Hollow was a marshy and unpleasant area bounded by Edward, Alice, Albert and Charlotte Streets that became waterlogged when it rained. In really heavy rain, the area used to become flood-bound, as can be seen in the following image taken during the 1864 floods, looking down Charlotte St from George St towards Edward St.  
(Photo: SLQ 22130)

Frogs Hollow became notorious for other reasons too. The noxious nature of the terrain seemed to attract the seamier side of Brisbane's inhabitants and businesses. The susceptibility to flooding meant that rents for buildings constructed there were relatively cheap, thereby attracting the poor and the disadvantaged and making Frogs Hollow a part of the town where criminal activity flourished. Brisbane historian Rod Fisher described it as being home to many of the city’s public houses, hostels, gambling joints, brothels and opium dens. He described it as a:
"rare clustering of drunkards, prostitutes, larrikins, thieves and assailants who, in one way or other, lived off the visitors, mariners, and new arrivals at the many boarding-houses, lodgings and hotels" 
One estimate in the late 1880's indicated that as many as 50 percent of cases that came before the Police Court originated in Frogs Hollow.
The cheaper dwellings and the moist conditions also attracted another group - the Chinese. Some were market gardeners but many more were involved in illegal gambling and drugs. Sometimes attempts were made to close down the illegal establishments and on occasions this resulted in full-scale riots.    

Gradually though, Brisbane expanded and Frogs Hollow was drained and cleaned up as businesses moved there. The construction of buildings such as Watson Bros and HB Sales brought people to the area, gradually forcing out the opium dens and brothels.

Click here for a Google Map.


Monday, April 4, 2016

Delivering the mail

Australia Post is not my favourite at the moment. The other day I waited at home for a parcel that the Australia Post internet tracker told me would be delivered on that day. It never came. Then in the late afternoon I received a text message saying that I could pick it up at the local post office. No postie had knocked at my door and no "not at home" card was in my letter box. So the postie must have decided that he couldn't be bothered delivering to my place on that day - he just made a unilateral decision that he would leave it at the post office. I wonder how many others had the same experience that day.

It raises a host of issues. I had paid for express delivery to my residence and was clearly short-changed.  I had to catch a bus to the post office to collect the parcel, and catch another bus back home carrying the parcel. Damned inconvenient at the time for me, but what if I was someone with a disability or no means to get to the post office? What if it was urgently needed medication? What use is an internet tracking service that advises you to stay at home to collect a delivery when that delivery never occurs? How many lost hours and how much lost productivity results?

I might point out that this has occurred before - several times over the last few years, in fact - so it is definitely not a one-off. The postie has actually delivered successfully at other times, so there is no physical problem that prevents delivery. Phone calls to Australia Post raise barely a flicker of interest at the other end. They tell me that the postie should make an attempt to deliver at the address, they promise to check, but still it occurs.

It is well documented that Australia Post's letter delivery service is losing money hand over fist. The increasing use of text messages, email services and social media where messages, photos, music etc can be sent electronically and received almost immediately anywhere in the world is obviously decimating "snail mail" as it has become known.

Australia Post has indicated that it wants to focus on its parcel delivery service to replace the revenue being lost in the letter division. Well, good luck with that, because if service standards are not better than what I have experienced the competition (and there is plenty of that) will chew up Australia Post and spit out the bits. 

Posting a letter to an address in Australia now costs the sender $1.00! One dollar for a standard letter. I'm flabbergasted, particularly seeing that the mail transit times are increasing rather than decreasing. Increasing the unit cost is hardly likely to bring in extra customers - $1.00 for a letter vs a few cents for an SMS or email is a no-brainer, after all.

Of course we all send emails today. From little tackers to great-grannies, people are emailing and texting in ever-increasing numbers. Even Clive Palmer's five year-old can send a text, apparently!

It did make me think about the changes to the mail service over the years.

The Australia Post web site tells me that way back in 1809 a man named Isaac Nichols was appointed to attend to all mail received in the colony of New South Wales, thus creating the first formal postal service in Australia. He was a man before his time as he operated from his home. He listed the names of those who received mail in the colony's newspaper and they came and collected their mail.

Over time, mail collection became mail delivery.
(Photo: SLQ 42743)

The photo above shows mail delivery on horseback in Brisbane in 1913. The postie depicted delivered mail in the Newmarket, Wilston, Grange, Enoggera and Ashgrove areas.

And I bet that it was a tad more reliable than today's service.


Monday, March 21, 2016

John McConnel and Morven, Shorncliffe

To follow the last post about Mary McConnel, here is a snippet about another member of the McConnel family.

John McConnel was the younger brother of David McConnel (Mary's husband) and followed David to Moreton Bay in 1842. With a third brother, Frederick, the McConnels were partners in Cressbrook station as mentioned in the previous post. When the partnership was wound up in 1861 John McConnel became a member of the Legislative Council, the upper house of the Queensland parliament (since abolished). It would be interesting to know whether John's new occupation was the cause or effect of the Cressbrook partnership being wound up.

In 1864 John McConnel commissioned architect Benjamin Backhouse to build him a fine residence at Shorncliffe, overlooking Moreton Bay. This is what it looked like circa 1904.
(Photo: SLQ 177631)

The house was sold to solicitor David Brown in the mid-1880s, and he named it Morven after his Scottish home town. Apparently at around this time the house was leased extensively as a summer residence by the then governor of Queensland, Sir Henry Wylie Norman.

There were several changes of ownership including a period where it operated as a guest house, until around 1951 when Morven was purchased by the parish priest of Sandgate, Fr O'Rourke, whose intention was for it to become a boys' school, and that is the function of the building today. It is part of St Patrick's, a Christian Brothers college, and it opened in 1952 with an enrolment of 172 students and now has over 1200 young men who would have celebrated St Patrick's Day last week. 

Here is a current photograph of Morven as seen on the school's web pages.

Click here for a Google Map.


Monday, March 14, 2016

Mary McConnel and Royal Children's Hospital

It has always been a source of wonder to me that Australia's early free settlers left Europe on a dangerous voyage to an even more dangerous land; not knowing what they would find when they got there, unprepared for the new world's flora, fauna and Indigenous inhabitants and totally unsuited for the seasons being in reverse and much hotter than whence they came. Many of them overcame all of these trials and collectively made the country that we are so proud of today.

One local story concerns the McConnel family on whom we have touched before in this earlier post about Bulimba House, the residence they built in Brisbane around 1850.  

David McConnel was born in Manchester in 1818 and emigrated to the Moreton Bay colony in 1840. In 1844 he established his station Cressbrook in the Upper Brisbane River near the present town of Esk. Intended to be a sheep run but found to be unsuitable for that purpose, Cressbrook became a shorthorn beef stud. Cressbrook today is still in the hands of the McConnel family. According to its web pages it is Queensland’s oldest residence, Queensland’s oldest identified family business and one of Australia’s third oldest identified family businesses.

In this post I want to look at the life of David's wife Mary McConnel in the early days of Cressbrook. David made a return visit to the Old Country in 1847, and in 1848 married Mary, a Scot, in Edinburgh and they arrived back in Moreton Bay in 1849. The house at Bulimba was their Brisbane base and some reports state that initially Mary stayed in Brisbane for health reasons, although she did live at Cressbrook later on. Here is an undated photograph of the couple.
 (Photo: SLQ 110184)

Can you imagine what life would have been like in the 1850s on a cattle property four day's ride from Brisbane? Let's start with the obvious things we take for granted today - no telephone, no electricity, no sewerage, probably no running water, transport by horse and/or buggy, no access to medical help and supplies to be imported from Brisbane or Ipswich. No church for the deeply religious McConnels and no school for any offspring. And for a woman living far from home in a totally unfamiliar environment, I imagine, a sense of loneliness.

One report about her says:
'Mary used what she had to make her drab environment look cheerful. A roll of unbleached calico was good for curtains, cushions and covers. She took twelve of her husband’s red silk handkerchiefs, cut them into strips, used them as binding for the covers, “and then I had a pretty room to sit in”.'
David McConnel helped other immigrants who arrived in Moreton Bay by providing work and often selling allotments of land to them on favourable terms. The Cressbrook Station web site relates that David McConnel and his brothers John and Frederick ran the property together until 1861 when the partnership dissolved, leaving David and Mary to run Cressbrook. The web page then says:
'...with the number of construction and station workers on Cressbrook now significant enough to establish a small township which included a butcher shop, post office, carpenters shop, blacksmiths and schoolhouse, with weekly church services held in the hallway at the main residence.' 
The Cressbrook homestead had been a school room during the week and a church on Sundays. Mary herself taught lessons and Scripture, then hired a full-time teacher; she started a library and held a weekly mothers' meeting - all the while being the mistress of the house and attending to its associated duties and entertaining visitors.

Tragedy in the form of the death of two infant sons led Mary to contemplate child health and welfare issues. She campaigned for a children's hospital and started fundraising. On a trip to the UK she visited children's hospitals to observe their methods of operation, and with the help of her brother, a doctor, enlisted staff.

When she returned to Brisbane she was able to oversee the opening of a children's hospital in a modified house in Spring Hill in March 1878. This facility was later transferred to Bowen Hills and became the Royal Children's Hospital. Here is a photograph of the hospital's nursing staff from around 1895.
(Photo: SLQ 88256)

Much of Australia's pioneer history has been written about men. Women like Mary McConnel deserve to have their story told too. In a harsh environment and with few tools compared with today's households they were the backbone of the country.

David McConnel died in June 1885 and Mary McConnel passed away in January 1910.

Click here for a Google Map.

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